Index


Preface. Why this book?

Introduction. Italy geographic or political

A note: An issue of perspectives

Part I: Ancient History, Italy’s origin and its shaping of the Mediterranean

Chapter 1: Italy at the turn of the 1st millennium BC

1.1 The people of Italy at the turn of the millennium

1.2 The Phoenicians of Carthage

1.3 The Etruscans

1.3.1: Elements of the Etruscan civilization

1.3.2 The beginning of the history of engineering

1.4 Elements of a history of cement and establishment of different traditions

1.5 The Greeks of Magna Graecia

1.5.1 Greek philosophy moves to Italy, Pythagoras

1.5.2: The Pythagorean revolution

1.5.3 The school of Elea; To be or not to be—Parmenides

1.5.4 Being can’t move or tell time; Zeno, the real beginning of the great divide between east and west

1.5.5: The birth of the Western four elements: Empedocles

1.5.6 Greek Sculpture in Italy

1.6 The first Greek-Punic War

Chapter 2: The rise of Ancient Rome and the early confrontation with the Greeks

2.1 The mythical foundation of Rome, blood of royls—and of scoundrels

2.2 The early kings of Rome

2.3 The foundation of the republic

2.4 The early Roman political, legal, and military system

2.5 The early Roman army and legal philosophy, 509-315 BC

2.5.1 The early army and its social order

2.5.2 The Phalanx

2.5.3 Thinking and social ideas structuring Roman law

2.6 Athens and Sparta battle in Sicily

2.7 Second Sicilian War between the Phoenicians and Greeks

2.8 The manipular formation: the development of the legion

2.9 Rome fights the Greeks allied with Carthage

Chapter 3: Conquering the Mediterranean and the Western world: the Punic and domestic wars

3.1 Context of the wars and the role of the Mediterranean

3.2 The First Punic War, the largest war of recorded Western antiquity

3.3 Hannibal, Carthage’s defeat, and the end of Punic and Greek wars

3.4 Civil wars, Marius versus Sulla, and popular versus conservative: the fabric of the Roman republic is torn apart

3.5 Spartacus and the rebellion of the slaves

3.6 The return of social wars and the rise of Caesar

3.7 The conquest of the Gauls and the rise of the empire

3.8 Augustus and the establishment of the empire

3.9 The imperial army and the military organization

Chapter 4: Life of the Empire

4.1 Internal management of the empire

4.1.1 Laws

4.1.2 Taxes and territory

4.2 The imperial grand strategy

4.3 The double pressure: the undefeatable Barbarians and the unmanageable empire

4.4 Social and economic crisis of the empire

4.5 The empire’s classical legal system

4.6 The rise of new religions

4.7 The spread of early Christianity

Chapter 5: Crisis of the empire and rise of early Christianity

5.1 Rome moves to Constantinople

5.2 The fall of the Western Empire and the first sack of Rome

5.3 The rise of the new ideological center, the papacy, and the first paramount theology; Augustine, a Roman from Carthage

5.4 Rome in the hands of the pope

5.5 The pope is without an emperor, and the emperor has no pope: the deepening east-west divide

5.6 Justinian, the failed re-conquest of the west, the political vacuum of the late sixth century, and the plague

5.7 The laws and religious reforms of Justinian; the legal legacy to modernity

5.8 The Corpus Iuris Iustiniani and the birth of modern law

5.9 The beginning of the Papal Estates

Part II: The Rise and Fall of Italy, its City-States and eventual Loss of Centrality of the Mediterranean

Chapter 6: Wasted Italy of the high Middle Ages, and the beginning of its rebirth

6.1 Italy and the former Western Empire turned into a wasteland in the seventh century

6.2 Lombard control of Italy versus Byzantine

6.3 The beginning of the rebirth of Rome and Italy

6.4 The rise of Islam in Arabia

6.5 Islam fights weakened Constantinople and Persia

6.6 Christians and Zoroastrians in Persia and their legacy for the Islamic Empires

6.7 The Arabs stopped at Tours by the Franks in 732

6.8 Charles the Great and his new alliance with the pope

6.9 The rise of the Holy Roman Empire

6.10 Political and ideological divisions of Christianity and the birth of Europe

Chapter 7: The Mediterranean split, Italy broken in two, and awaiting the year 1000, Armageddon

7.1 Splinters of Holy Western Empire and the conversion of the new Barbarians

7.2 The Byzantine resurgence and the battle for the south of Italy

7.3 The reform of the Eastern Empire leading to its resurgence and crisis

7.4 The rise of the Turks, the start of the decline of the Byzantines, and the arrival of the Normans in southern Italy

7.5 The great East-West schism and its complicated and ancient roots

7.6 The new political centrality of the pope and lingering doctrinal differences between the Latins and Greeks

7.7 The rise of Norman power in Italy and the west

7.8 The foundation of the Holy German Roman Empire

7.9 The First Crusade and the projection of papal power over the whole Mediterranean

Chapter 8. The rise of Italy in its first identity and the birth of the Italian city-states

8.1 The growth of the German Empire and its hold on northern Italy

8.2 The Italian city-states versus the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Byzantine Manuel the Great

8.3 The vast diplomatic and military successes of Manuel and Frederick outside of Italy

8.4 The rebirth of Roman law and the spread of Italian language and identity

8.5 The birth of Italian noodles

8.6 The rise of the Italian maritime republics

8.7 The discovery of glass windows, another view on the world

8.8 The Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople

8.9 The invention of double-entry accounting

Chapter 9: Italy, the new center of the world in the Renaissance

9.1 The new influence of Italy in Europe

9.2 Francis of Assisi

9.2 Frederick II, The Stupor Mundi

9.3 Thomas Aquinas, the new philosophical basis for Christian Europe

9.4 Dante and the birth of the first official language in Europe other than Latin

9.5 Giotto and the invention of the modern way of seeing things

9.6 The Medici, the paragon of a political and economic family in Italy

9.7 The ultimate art of politics in the political balance of the Mediterranean

9.8 Leonardo da Vinci, the conjugation of art and science and the ideal of modernity

9.9 The new vision of the world from the Renaissance of Michelangelo

Chapter 10: Italy and the Mediterranean lose centrality

10.1 The fight for Italian hegemony—Italy divided and under attack

10.2 The rise of the Ottoman power

10.3 The Turkish conquest of Constantinople

10.4 Bypassing the monopoly of Turkey: the discovery of America

10.5 The great divisions of the Italian states

10.6 Martin Luther’s reforms and the break in the unity of Western Christianity

10.7 The European new Ethical split, wealth and poverty

10.8 The Turkish advance in the Mediterranean

10.9 The rise of Russia as the third Rome

Chapter 11: The Fall of the Mediterranean in the 17th Century

11.1 The new world around Italy – rise of the Atlantic and Pacific trade and the new isolation of Peninsula

11.2 The church reaction, the Counter-Reformation, and the Jesuits in the world

11.3 The pope discovers the world beyond the Mediterranean: Jesuits in Asia and Latin America

11.4 Galileo and the discovery of modern science

11.5 The Baroque and the beginning of modern music

11.6 The new European balance of power and the discovery of Pompeii and its classics

11.7 The religious crisis after the Renaissance 11.8 Vico and the invention of modern history

11.9 Beccaria, the father of modern law

11.10 The political situation of Italy in the 18th century

11.11 The Renaissance and Galiani’s contribution to the development of modern economic thought

11.12 Almost a footnote Hume, Desideri: Chinese Marxist revolution and the Buddhist sense of knowledge

11.13 The Cotton Empire strands Italy

11.14 The Sinification of Europe and perspective of China’s modernization

Part III: The Political History of Italy

Chapter 12: Modern Italy and its drive to unity

12.1 Napoleon invents Italy

12.2 The early phase of the movement, from 1815 to 1821

12.3 The revolutions of 1848 and the second war of independence in 1855

12.4 Garibaldi goes to the south, Italy is established in 1861

12.5 The third war of independence in 1866 and the occupation of Rome in 1870

12.6 Dreaming of great power: Italy faces scandals, industrializes, and goes to Africa

12.7 Finding Italy in America: the wave of Italian migration at the turn of the century

12.8 The invention of Italian food and its music

Chapter 13: Italy united—and lost

13.1 Italy under Giolitti: the rise of the workers movement and the northern enterprises

13.2 World War I

13.3 The rise of the communist revolution and its failure

13.4 Gramsci

13.5 The rise of fascism

13.6 Mussolini’s reach for power

13.7 The Fascist regime, the new agreement between the Vatican and the state, and the conquest of Ethiopia

Chapter 14: World War II and its aftermath

14.1 Going to war, Italian ambitions, and the alliance with Hitler

14.2 The war of resistance, and the split of Italy along ideological lines

14.3 The rebirth of the Mafia in Sicily and its role in the anti-communist fight

14.4 The first government of national unity and the Cold War in Italy

14.5 The birth of the Italian Neorealist cinema

14.6 Trying to solve the underdevelopment of the Italian south

14.7 The re-launch of Italy and the economic miracle in 1950s and 1960s

14.8 The complicated ties of the Italian communist party with Moscow

Chapter 15: Times of stability and revolution: Italy in the 1970 and 1980s

15.1 The complex system of power of the Christian Democrats

15.2 The rise of the ’68 student movement

15.3 The Historic Compromise and the strategy of black and red terror

15.4 The Red Brigades and the kidnapping of Aldo Moro in 1978

15.5 The defeat of the Red Brigades while keeping a democratic system

15.6 Italy’s economic superpower and the start of the great debt crisis

15.7 Pope Wojtyla smashing communism in the USSR, but keeping it in Cuba

15.8 Mafia threatens Italy and is defeated

Chapter 16: The end of the first republic

16.1 Italians Andreotti and De Michelis spearhead the establishment of the euro

16.2 The 1992 “clean hands” movement; judges and newspapers against the old regime

16.3 The Northern League and Berlusconi join the game

16.4 Prodi challenges and defeats Berlusconi

16.5 Joining the euro in 1999; Prodi’s push for and failure of greater integration

16.6 Falling behind the rest of Europe, Prodi short lived new government

16.7 The Rise and establishment of Italian Fashion

16.8 Italian Soccer and its link with media development

16.9 The new role of the Popes after Wojtyla

16.10 The new looming centrality of Rome, with the Vatican

16.11 Market or Rights? Italian globalizing expiring with populism